Key Takeaways

  • Our analysis of fourth quarter 2016 earnings conference call transcripts indicates sentiment among corporate executives continued to improve as 2016 ended and 2017 began.
  • Policy was a popular topic, as taxes, infrastructure, and regulation saw big jumps in the number of mentions. Currency and China also continued to garner a lot of attention.
  • Solid fourth quarter 2016 results and improved sentiment from corporate executives support our expectation for mid-to-high single digit earnings growth for the S&P 500* in 2017.

*We expect mid-single-digit returns for the S&P 500 in 2017 consistent with historical mid-to-late economic cycle performance. We expect S&P

500 gains to be driven by: 1) a pickup in U.S. economic growth partially due to fiscal stimulus; 2) mid- to high-single-digit earnings gains as corporate

America emerges from its year-long earnings recession; and 3) an expansion in bank lending; and 4) a stable price-to-earnings ratio of 18 – 19.

It should come as little surprise that sentiment among corporate executives improved during the fourth quarter of 2016. We saw relatively more use of strong and positive words compared with weak and negative words in our analysis of earnings conference call transcripts. Talk of recession remains virtually non-existent, supported by solid economic data of late. Significant discussions of taxes also came as no surprise given market participants’ focus on corporate tax reform and the possible border adjustment tax. Finally, currency and China continued to garner a lot of attention, while energy and Brexit faded. Note that our analysis covers fourth quarter 2016 earnings calls that took place from mid-January through the first three weeks of February.

Corporate Beige Book Tax

Corporate Beige Book Tax

Another Improvement In Management Tone

When we count positive and negative words from earnings call transcripts, we see that sentiment among corporate executives continued its impressive streak of improvement in the fourth quarter of 2016. The total overall use of strong and weak words declined quarter over quarter, but the use of strong and positive words (e.g., “strong,” “robust,” “solid,” “improving,” “good”) fell much less than the use of weak words (e.g., “weak,” “soft,” “difficult,” “challenging”), pushing the differential between strong and weak words higher, which we refer to as our Corporate Beige Book Barometer [Figure 1].

The differential between strong and weak words in our analysis rose 15% to 789 in the fourth quarter of 2016, after a more than 20% increase in the third quarter of 2016. The improved sentiment is even more apparent when looking at the ratio of strong to weak words, which jumped from 2.6 in the third quarter to 3.8 in the fourth quarter [Figure 2].

We are encouraged that this analysis generally reflects the improved conditions in corporate America that we have observed in the economic data, in the reported earnings and revenue numbers, and anecdotally in the enthusiasm around pro-growth policies from Washington, D.C.

Corporate Beige Book Tax

Tax Reform

Policy Talk Dominates

After little policy talk from corporate executives during 2016’s third quarter earnings reporting season (roughly mid-October 2016 through mid-to-late November 2016), much of which occurred before Election Day, we saw a huge spike in policy discussions in fourth quarter conference calls. The policy focus for executives, analysts, and investors is evident in the sharp increase in the use of the word “tax” (or “taxes”) as shown in Figure 3. We highlighted the increased attention on tax reform in our Weekly Market Commentary two weeks ago that revealed tax policy getting more mentions than any other policy topic (source: FactSet). ­­

On a related note, we were surprised that the controversial border adjustment tax did not get more attention, although it did go from receiving no mentions in our sampled transcripts in the third quarter to a few dozen in the fourth quarter. Other key policy topics included trade, which saw a big jump in mentions in the quarter (32 to 91), regulation (7 to 36), and infrastructure (20 to 34).

Here are some executives’ comments on tax reform, including a mention of the border adjustment tax:

  • “From our perspective, we believe that any type of corporate tax reform would be positive for us, because as you know, in the agricultural sector, being a U.S. domiciled company, we pay the highest tax rates in the industry.” (Agriculture)
  • “We strongly support comprehensive corporate tax reform. Lower corporate tax rates will encourage investment, create jobs, and make the U.S. a more competitive country.” (Transportation logistics)
  • “Any relief on corporate taxes would be a benefit, subject to any of the other provisions that may get put out there such as the border adjustment tax that you alluded to. So, a lot of kind of ambiguity out there, and we really won’t know more until later in the year when some of this comes into clear focus.” (Building materials)
  • “As you know, approximately 65% of our revenues are derived from the U.S. and therefore, we pay a significant amount of U.S. corporate taxes. If there is a reduction in the corporate tax rate, we would expect to benefit from it.” (Industrial equipment)

Here are some executives’ comments on trade:

  • “Obviously, there are still many questions about the future of NAFTA and the trade relationship between the U.S. and Mexico. While we’ve gotten some indication of the direction of the new administration through the nomination of most of the key trade policymakers, we still don’t have definitive answers to several of those questions. What we do know is that the President’s team has indicated that there will be a process for reshaping of America’s trade policies which could include updating NAFTA.” (Railroad)
  • “I think clarity sooner rather than later would be particularly helpful and would be on a lot of discussions. That’s really what they are at the moment, discussions around trade policies as they relate to both Mexico and China, and some of the other trade partners that we have. So in our view the sooner that gets cleared up and resolved, I actually think there could be a further uptick.” (Industrial equipment)

Comments on infrastructure:

  • “[With regard to infrastructure] …whether it be some kind of infrastructure private-public partnership credit program, whether it’s some kind of a grant program, there is a whole bunch of different permutations then to what could unfold. But I’d say step one corporate tax reform, this is just my opinion. Step two, infrastructure, and you’ll see it coming out of the administration what they choose to prioritize and then our focus will follow suit.” (Railroad)
  • “We believe the case for infrastructure development is clear. A world-class infrastructure is the backbone of a modern healthy U.S. economy. In addition, reduction of Federal regulations will also make the U.S. economy more vibrant.” (Transportation logistics provider)

And comments on deregulation: