Is Fintech – Finally – Gaining Ground? by [email protected]
Technology is changing the global financial system so rapidly, the World Economic Forum recently noted, that there is an “urgent need” to set standards and develop regulations. While the “use of technology in finance is not new, nor are many of the products and services that are offered by new entrants to the sector,” the group pointed out, “it is the novel application of technology and its speed of evolution that make the current wave of innovation unlike any we have seen before in financial services.”
The report, developed with input from leaders of the world’s biggest banks, grew out of discussions at the group’s annual gathering in Davos, Switzerland, in January, where the focus on financial technology, or fintech, was so intense that Bloomberg News ran a story headlined, “Biggest Global Banks at Davos: We’re All Fintech Innovators Now.”
At its simplest, financial technology – or fintech – applies technological innovations to financial processes, products and services. The attention to fintech has accelerated quickly. In 2014, big banks began shifting focus in earnest toward fintech and away from the regulatory compliance issues and cost-cutting fallout from the economic crisis. That year, global investment in fintech ventures tripled, to $12 billion – mostly in the U.S. — from $4 billion in 2013. In 2015, investment in private fintech companies rose nearly 60% more, to $19 billion, according to Citigroup and consulting firm CB Insights.
And investing in startups is only the beginning.
[drizzle]Bank of America spends $3 billion a year on what it called “technology initiatives” in its annual report. Likewise, JPMorgan Chase chairman and CEO Jaime Dimon wrote in his annual letter to shareholders the bank spent about $3 billion on new investments in technology last year.
Dimon said that the bank has built its own “extraordinary in-house big data capabilities — we think as good as any in Silicon Valley — populated with more than 200 analysts and data scientists.” The data those techies are crunching is being used to court new customers in commercial banking, to improve underwriting and marketing, to make the bank’s operations more efficient, and, of course, to optimize trading, Dimon said.
The interest in fintech from major banks reflects the fact that the digital market is barely tapped. Citi estimates only about 1% of North American consumer banking revenue has shifted to new digital business models so far. It forecast that figure will rise to 10% by 2020 and 17% by 2023. And it points out that the shift is already well underway in China, where top fintech companies like Alipay and Tencent, have as many or more clients than the biggest banks. Greg Baxter, Citi’s global head of digital strategy, notes that 96% of all online sales in China are conducted without a bank.
“Fintech is no longer a niche.” –Matthew Carey
The potential for losing market share to startups is just one of the reasons big banks are pouring money into their own technology, as well as startup ventures.
“Digital disruption has the potential to shrink the role and relevance of today’s banks, and simultaneously help them create better, faster, cheaper services that make them an even more essential part of everyday life for institutions and individuals,” wrote Julian Skan, managing director in financial services at Accenture, in a 2015 report. “To make the impact positive, banks are acknowledging that they need to shake themselves out of institutional complacency and recognize that merely navigating waves of regulation and waiting for interest rates to rise won’t protect them from obsolescence.”
Fintech – No Longer a Niche
With major financial institutions moving into the fintech space at a rapid clip, where does that leave the startups? To some, it means fintech is no longer pigeonholed.
“Fintech is no longer a niche,” writes Wharton alumnus Matthew Carey, the co-founder of Abaris, an annuity comparison site that has raised $720,000 in two rounds of funding according to CrunchBase, in a post on the school’s Entrepreneurship Blog. “Where once venture capital firms scoffed at the burdens of launching a startup in financial services, there are now few sectors generating more attention.”
Carey points to a comment last summer from Goldman Sachs CEO Lloyd Blankfein that the venerable investment bank is now first and foremost “a technology company” as proof that fintech has entered the mainstream.
But while money and attention is flowing in from banks and venture capital, so far fintech is getting less attention on a wider scale.
Saikat Chaudhuri, director of Wharton’s Mack Institute for Innovation Management, says the lack of visibility is due in part to fintech being such a broad term, with some portions that seem immediately viable, some that are more difficult to envision and some that are aimed at markets outside the U.S.
“If you think about fintech in terms of Paypal and Apple Pay and Google pay and everything else ‘pay’ — as an alternative to, say, credit card payments or direct deposits — that’s already in action,” he says. “That’s happening in a world of innovative devices.”
The next major step for payment services is likely growth in less developed countries that can use mobile devices for payments, “not so much a substitute, but an enhancement,” Chaudhuri says. In emerging markets where banks have far less reach, for example, new platforms can be exploited to serve the unbanked market.
MasterCard President and CEO Ajay Banga, for one, has for years beat the drum about the inefficiencies of cash and the potential for digital payments in countries where residents who have no access to banks already carry mobile phones.
“It’s not just an alternate payment channel, it’s that we’re allowing other entities in the system to act as banks.” –Saikat Chaudhuri
“That addresses a whole new market and it really addresses the unbanked market,” Chaudhuri says, noting that the technology could also serve U.S. consumers who don’t use banks. By some estimates, up to 50 million Americans don’t use banks or use them minimally, and mainly rely on alternative financial providers like check cashers, a potentially huge new market for fintech companies.
Citi data shows that 73% of the investment in fintech last year was dedicated to personal and small business banking, including 23% into payments and 3% into money transfer.
Another area with enormous potential that has been a bit slow out of the starting gate is peer-to-peer lending, especially those platforms that are integrated into social media.
Online platforms that match borrowers and lenders have been around for a decade, but account for less than 1% of total retail loans outstanding in the U.S., and, according to Citi data, at current growth rates would just crack about 3% by the end of 2018.
Chaudhuri says regulations are still a challenge for this portion of fintech, especially those with a social media component. That may contribute to slower growth despite the vast potential, but it also depends on what lending arenas are targeted, especially after the housing market crash.
“It’s not just an alternate payment channel, it’s that we’re allowing other entities in the system to act as banks,” he explains. “The way that it would have to proceed, is that some of these big online properties and social media would really need to almost apply for a banking license. I’m not