Eyal Winter – Feeling Smart: Why our Emotions are More Rational Than We Think

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Eyal Winter – Feeling Smart: Why our Emotions are More Rational Than We Think

Eyal Winter – Feeling Smart: Why our Emotions are More Rational Than We Think

 

 

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investThe latest Robinhood Investors Conference is in the books, and some hedge funds made an appearance at the conference. In a panel on hedge funds moderated by Maverick Capital's Lee Ainslie, Ricky Sandler of Eminence Capital, Gaurav Kapadia of XN and Glen Kacher of Light Street discussed their own hedge funds and various aspects of Read More


Published on Dec 11, 2015

Saïd Business School is delighted to welcome Eyal Winter as part of the Responsible Leadership Series.

http://www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/school/events…

0:32it’s about russia now but it’s much broader it’s about decision-making
0:35interdisciplinary center that accommodates people from different
0:40disciplines starting with economics and business but also mass psychology
0:44computer science biology law sociology and I might’ve over over
0:57philosophy and all these people are doing research in the wrong field but
1:05they have one common issue which is one common topic that they’re interested in
1:09inches decision-making
1:13and when i when I was when I served as the director of the center and lots of
1:19opportunity to talk with people and learn from people coming from different
1:25disciplines at some collaboration some joint papers with with these people and
1:31and at the end of my my term as the director I decided I want to put
1:36everything that I have in mind about decision-making and rationality in the
1:44way I was influenced by my colleague and decided to write this book and why while
1:50was thinking very very seriously about rationality member decision-making I
1:58realize that there is one one aspect in decision-making that is very much
2:03overlooked by much of these disciplines even psychology and this is the role of
2:12emotions in decision-making and and one of the purpose of writing these this
2:18book was to highlight based on my research research in the field in
2:23understanding emotions better and the way they affect their decision making
2:27and also reflecting on these other people who worked on it some of them in
2:34my center some of them outside the center in various places in the world
2:39that was the purpose of writing the book and many of you two courses in economics
2:51and I bet none of you have heard during I didn’t hear I was an economic students
2:58I didn’t hear the word emotions all through my students career in economics
3:07and I bet most of you haven’t heard this word because most of us think this this
3:12belong to different territory that’s maybe maybe not
3:17science maybe psychology it doesn’t belong to economics it doesn’t belong to
3:23business and this this perception is being changed now and I wrote the book
3:31of course I was I was a little concerned about the way my colleagues in Economics
3:36with think about it will treat it goes again this was the way I interpret it is
3:42this world was pretty much a taboo in the profession let me say tell you a
3:46little bit about the processor wrote it in in in hebrew first and then I
3:52translated in english publisher in Germany that I still publishing now it
4:07appears also in Germany then there to factory other publishers that they’re
4:12going to
4:13come up with the big publishers dark going to come up with the book one of
4:18them in China Japan and in Turkey I speak English I speak German site would
4:26give my inputs to these translation in fact one of the mighty myself of course
4:33I did I speak Hebrew but I don’t have anything to say about the wind
4:39translated in these other languages when when when I finished the book as I told
4:47you because it seemed to be emotions seem to be a rather I’m familiar or a
4:57topic that is not really discussed within economies was important to me to
5:02know what people in my profession is saying and I threw the the publisher I
5:12was very lucky to actually get endorsement that appear in the book by
5:17eight nobel areas George Akerlof can narrow Robert alman Bob Lucas Eric
5:26Maskin Roger Myers soon open drawers which only nears near Lowes personally
5:31also burning sneeze and also by people who wrote other popular books on
5:38decision-making to some extent not all of them actually gonna be hella
5:44perinatal both Syrian Assad who rolled beautiful mind and Larry Summers who was
5:50the former secretary of Finance in the USA and the president of Harvard
5:56University so if you are interested in economics and you worry that the motions
6:03really don’t belong there then I hope these names will change your mind about
6:08about reading it and when I started
6:17addressed to conventional wisdom about emotions and rationality
6:26very widespread in fact until a couple of decades several decades ago there
6:31were even widespread among scientists now now scientists realized that they
6:35they they are wrong
6:38the false but still most of the general public and by the way this book is meant
6:44for general public
6:45this is not fewer academic book it’s meant for general general readers the
6:54general public this is really still very much true conventional wisdom one of
6:59them is that what we have in the brain are two separate boxes one that is
7:05responsible for a rational decision making and the other one which is
7:09responsible for emotional decision making and they’re constantly fighting
7:14and eventually one of these boxes takes over the other one case eating and this
7:23is how we make the decision
7:25ok if it’s if it’s the right time parks that one then we make a rational
7:31decision if it’s left left-hand one then we make an emotional decision
7:38this is very wrong ok we don’t have two boxes in the brain and and we can’t
7:43really separate emotions from analyses or reasoning there are places in which
7:53are more typical to process emotions are not going to talk about it but it’s
7:59really very hard to to separate these areas that’s one thing and the other
8:03thing which is even more important is that a rational being an R
8:09emotional beings are constantly in discussion constantly exchanging
8:14information constantly deliberating working really really together in quite
8:22differently so if at all there is some interaction between these two boxes we
8:27want to keep this this description and then obviously they’re very much
8:35intermingled the reason is that basically even even the most material
8:43decision-making eventually involve an emotional reaction to the supermarket
8:51and face to product in front of us and we eventually what are handled one of
8:56them the final trigger is emotional
9:02the final trigger is is take place after process which we analyze think we ask
9:09questions we will look at numbers and we analyze it and we look back and think
9:16about consequences and things like that this is analytical but eventually the
9:22last trigger is a motion ok so this is one conventional wisdom the other
9:27conventional wisdom is about how emotions affect our decision-making and
9:34most of us would have us believe that we would have been able to do better
9:42decision without emotions especially when these decisions involve our
9:46financial or economic decision this is also wrong emotions not only it’s not
9:58only the case that they don’t generally
10:04destroy or or reduce the quality of our decision-making even the contrary almost
10:13in most cases the help of the facilitator decision-making ok we would
10:20have been in spite of craving to be like mister Spock if you remember the person
10:27who could simply turn off his his emotional being and make decisions
10:30solely by logic and reasoning we would’ve been a very very bad decision
10:36maker if we if we had this ability or if we turned off or promotion of being one
10:46startling evidence about it was or is is written in a wonderful book by Antonio
10:55Damasio who is normal signs who basically tell us a lot about my role eg
11:02of of emotions and he talks about the very famous incidence of a train worker
11:08in the states at the end of the 19th century who got injured while working on
11:14on the train tracks and he was actually was it was hit in the front lawn and an
11:24object came through his front front front and two craving a whole of that
11:32size
11:33nevertheless he survived it is survived twenty years afterwards the accident
11:43didn’t actually do anything to his to his
11:50reasoning ability to his analytic skills he could do calculation could do all
11:56sorts of complicated stuff that you used to do before but emotionally and
12:03socially his life were completely ruined ok 11 experiment once once he was
12:11discovered scientists started to implement all sorts of decision-making
12:17experiments of him and 11 of the one more startling phenomenon is the one you
12:21gave when you give this person an opportunity to make decisions they
12:27simply can’t make the decision if you if you put two fruits the same food if you
12:32put two apples in front of them they would randomly take one but if you took
12:36an apple and an orange he would stare at it for 15 minutes not being able to do
12:44to make a decision and and the way his life was ruined was was because of his
12:53inability to deal properly with his emotions for instance it couldn’t wake
12:59wake up in the morning and do the basics include all of us are doing preparing
13:07ourselves to go to work he understood that going to work is essential for his
13:12well-being could explain why it’s essential for his well-being but he
13:17didn’t have these treater emotional trader intrinsic trigger that made him
13:24do so they so he lost his job he lost his family it was a miserable people
13:30person in spite of the fact that nothing is is analytical skill was was was
13:37damaged so why why why isn’t it correct how do how do emotions facilitating help
13:49us in in in decision-making so let me first say that in my book I’m a
13:54distinction between two types of emotions once which I call social
14:00emotions these are emotions or
14:03interactive emotions these are motions that we experienced only when we
14:08interact with someone else
14:09Kaif we are angry we have to be angry at somebody ok if we will love somebody
14:17will feel empathy to somebody has to be somebody to whom we feel these emotions
14:22experienced this emotional reaction these are so you’re talking about
14:29empathy love embarrassment is is is an interactive emotion anger of course but
14:38also emotions which I call autonomous emotions that you don’t require any
14:43interaction at all like for instance fear can be an experience fear from
14:48somebody but it’s not necessary we can fear you can experience fear from
14:53diseases from from accidents from whatever right
14:57fear happiness so row these are motion that they call autonomous and most of
15:07the book is actually talking about the advantages so far
15:12interactive emotional let me give you one example section two examples about
15:18how anger on service and these are these are based on experiment that have been
15:22done several decades ago in the us- and one of these experiments subject was
15:28brought to the lab to negotiate division of sums of money they were divided into
15:35pairs were given some money would create some some sort of a cemetery was created
15:41so as not to get them focus on some focal point of dividing 85050 and there
15:50were they there were brought to the lab to to negotiate about how to divide his
15:54monies but before they were taken into the lab some of them were induced to be
16:00be slightly more angry than the rest how do you make people think tactically or
16:05any other two techniques that are used one of them is to let them wait in front
16:10of the lab an extra hour before you bring him here for the Windermere this
16:16will definitely make them pissed off but i dont like this technique there is
16:19another technique that technology is used very often and some of my
16:23colleagues at the University which is asking them to write down in a very
16:30detailed way an annoying experience that they have let’s say in the last two or
16:36three years while they write it down you can look at the face and see how how
16:43emotionally Rosal there how angry they become were writing this so some of them
16:51were where induced by this technique to be angry more than the others and what
16:58these researchers found which is startling thing but it says a lot about
17:02the role of emotions in
17:05in making us more rational what they found out is that those people went to
17:11the lab with a higher level of anger also left alive with a higher level of
17:16money
17:17ok so anger actually both money bought them something ok I’m gonna tell you
17:24later about how how comes that those people did better in negotiation
17:31another experiment was carried out around the same time they’ll not with
17:37negotiations but with debating debating is when people try to convince each
17:43other about some political issue or ideological issue and bring arguments ok
17:49it’s not about negotiations not by dividing anything it’s about convincing
17:53ok and they use the same technique to make some people more more angry than
18:01the other 12 found out and then they wrote down all the argument that people
18:08are making during their debate what they found out that those people who was
18:13slightly more angry and I stressed lightly because I don’t want to motivate
18:18you now to really go back home and ask yourself how do I make myself mad about
18:24other people right
18:25tuning is is is the is the main thing here but any of those people were
18:32slightly more angry than the rest were found to be able to distinguish better
18:36between relevant argument is irrelevant argument is to some extent this is less
18:42surprising that what I told you before because we know that anger raises the
18:48level of adrenaline in our body makes it makes us more alert it motivates us when
18:55we’re angry want to change the situation you motivated in doing stuff and
19:02eventually this comes out
19:05this boils down to something helpful for us so so much of the discussion in the
19:17book is is is going through different types of emotional reactions and asking
19:25myself what extent they help us and and how how these the ability for them to be
19:36helpful to us is is is actually consistent with what what what we know
19:40in economic theory ok all the time in the book is consistent is not something
19:46is not contradicting economics it’s actually confirming economic theory but
19:53reinterpreting some of the concept the notion that we have an economic theory
19:57so for instance one very important concept that can explain a lot why
20:04people are served well by being a little bit angry is the concept of commitment
20:12is an old concept to do to thomas showing that roughly says that sometimes
20:20in strategic interactions we haven’t we get an advantage by tying your hands
20:27behind their back
20:29reducing our opportunities is good good service and one of the examples I heard
20:41from a friend of mine with historians concerned the wrong on leaks legions
20:48that we’re chasing the German tribes Over the Rhine be used to burn the
20:55bridges over the run
20:57ok burning bridges is reducing your your opportunities is doing something that is
21:03irreversible to some extent but this is an action that the paint them
21:08better off because it could signal their enemies that there is only one way they
21:12can go now right there’s no way back for them which influence the forest the
21:17behavior of the other party so now let me let me go back to anger and described
21:27to you
21:28hypothetical scenario that might might give you a little bit of insight about
21:33why anger could service in relation to this idea of commitment I wanted to
21:39think about a situation which you come back from a conference on vacation and
21:45you’re not a fight at the airport that your flight was canceled happened to all
21:49of us I guess most of us many of us when I tell my kids they say to my students
21:56undergrad student Lisa a wonderful and another day in the hotel but for most of
22:02us these are bad news
22:03ok and what I wanted 1012 to do is to go through two different scenarios and
22:10tried to speculate about the emotional reaction that you’ll have in these two
22:15difference in arguing whether the you have the same emotional reaction in
22:19these two scenarios in scenario you look around yourself and you basically
22:24realize that people are very indifferent about these news they don’t seem to care
22:31much about the fact that they are asked to report a date later at the airport
22:36they are announcing the buses are waiting outside to take you to the hotel
22:40and you are rolling site is that it’s a done deal nothing would happen nothing
22:46could change ok I assume that in this situation in under this scenario you
22:53want be really anger would not be the correct aristide’s not be the the the
22:58right emotion to characterize your mental state maybe frustration may be
23:04sore about the fact that you missed your spouse birthday or girlfriend birthday
23:10but not anger now wanna take you through some are you be which is which starts
23:17very much the same but developed differently
23:21and in scenario to be you come across in a Quentin and he tells you I went to the
23:32airline desk and very determined way I explained them that I’m not going to
23:39take this treatment that you know that I’m expecting them to to serve me with
23:46some alternative and I told them again to raise the limit my boys would I told
23:55them that if they don’t do it I’m going to sue the company and believe it or not
24:02different flight and I’m going to be back on in a few hours in this scenario
24:08I bet you’d be much more angry than in Scenario way you are likely to go
24:18yourself to the desk of the airline and ask for similar treatment maybe raise
24:23your voice a little bit it’s not that you will imitate being angry you know if
24:28I had if I could measure I’ll tell you later about how we do it in the lab you
24:34measure your emotional reaction I would be able to see that for instance your
24:40level of adrenaline went up and the reason why you will
24:47emotional reaction would be so different between scenario and soon you’ll be
24:52pleased that in certain areas be you encounter an opportunity which was not
24:59there in scenario because you just heard that this guy who was hungry would be
25:07treated better and much of our emotional reaction and primarily potentially
25:15almost only in case of interactive emotion will talk about the interactive
25:21emotions are synthesized this way I’m calling it a bit of unfair way but but
25:29are are prone or
25:32affected by motivation this is actually an interesting phenomenon because if if
25:38if if you think about the condom recent contributions recent years the
25:42contribution of behavioral economics was in primarily one direction thinking
25:47about how emotions affect rational behavior or distorting rational behavior
25:54example that I just gave you if you believe it is about how rationality
26:01affect our emotion it’s it’s basically about the fact that incentives kick back
26:09to affect our emotional state of mind can give you another example that i’ve
26:16been i’ve been the Chairman for several years of the Economics Department at the
26:21Hebrew University and one of the one of the things I put some effort team was
26:30the something that you Bridgestone don’t know about because you have these double
26:38examination going through two different individuals in israel it’s very common
26:45for students to appeal again to appeal on the grates on the marks there are
26:51very elaborate billing procedures and peeling is really a tough issue in
27:01israel because it really very bad emotions on the part of the students
27:07this is where get students to cry to be extremely angry and one-time even to we
27:16had to remove a student with an ambulance because she fainted during
27:20this negotiation visa field instructor of these abuses and we started to
27:31experiment with different regimes and also inquire with other
27:35with other universities that
27:38different regime and one inside that we converge to is that the most liberal you
27:48make the procedure
27:52satisfied at the end of the year
27:55K the most regions you make it the more they’re satisfied if you make it a very
28:03liberal system you can peel and then appeal against them and then write a
28:08letter to the problems and the president this is where all these bad feelings
28:14coming guards when you tell them listen this is only one out of many examples
28:20you go through in your career here is a student and you just need to believe
28:27that the professor didn’t intentionally tried to reduce your great and then you
28:37can expect that this mistake here will be washed away with with another mistake
28:43in which which would be in your favor if we couldn’t get that much that close to
28:50this regime in which they are not allowed to appeal at all but the closer
28:53we got there the more satisfied the student where and again the reason for
29:01it some of these emotional reaction are being are being incentivize
29:11they incentives affect these emotional emotional state of mind mapping tell you
29:19about an experiment that we published several
29:28two or three years ago Journal corn or assigns social neuroscience that is
29:35focusing on research in neuroscience that is concerned social behavior one
29:44board we wanted to do is to highlight what I wanted to do is to highlight the
29:52this aspect that emotions can be incentivize incentives in reasoning
30:00about incentive call it rationality can affect emotions not only emotion can
30:05affect rationality but also rationality can affect emotions what we did we used
30:11a machine called skin conductance skin conductance assumption that actually can
30:16actually read emotional reactions ok it’s based on reading physiological
30:23signals from the body basically the conductance of the scheme we know that
30:27people are experiencing emotional reaction they tend to sweat more and in
30:35the level of conductance in the body increases and also the heartbeats and
30:39these are there is a laboratory very elaborate procedure went to measure
30:43these signals and for decades now
30:48psychologies use this machine together with the battery of question here that
30:53are completely dad when I saw your talkin out to the strategic environment
30:58they created the lab and these two things allow them to not only identify
31:03what kind of the motion the person is experiencing whether it’s anger or fear
31:09or empathy or whatever but also the level of the emotional reaction I wanted
31:17I said as I is sad to see whether we can incentivize people to become emotional
31:27and some emotional to specific so we created basically three treatments we
31:34used one getting into too much detail but but roughly we we created a
31:40strategic situation which to individual interacted and we we connected one of
31:49them to the skin conductance and with all these person in treatment one we
31:53have a way to measure your anger due to unsatisfactory unsatisfying behavior on
32:01your count of your counterpart
32:04we could we could actually can actually measure how angry or about the way he’s
32:09treating you and if I and the more angry or going to be the more we are going to
32:15compensate you in treatment be with said the same but not respect to anger but
32:21rather with respect to happiness the more happy or going to be by the way
32:25your counterpart is treating you the more we are going to reward you and
32:30treatments three was basically was basically a new trial there was no
32:38rewards whatsoever
32:39neutral environment and what we found out is that the emotional reaction the
32:44objective emotional reaction read through the skin conductors was WAY WAY
32:52higher at the anger group
32:56the one we measured in the two other treatments the one in the happy group
33:01was slightly was somewhat higher than the control group but the difference
33:10there was not significant the only the only difference which was significance
33:13is the level of anger that people experience the emotional reaction in the
33:20anger group compared with the two other groups so this was this was an evidence
33:28that let us believe that people can use emotion strategically can can be
33:39motivated to be emotional and and the question of why why did the reaction was
33:49so much more pronounced when he was about anger and happiness is is itself
33:55an interesting question whether it could be several answers to it one of them is
34:00could be simply a ceiling effect that we are potentially would have been nice if
34:07we could by means of small incentives make people happy
34:13should government abuse used it put a lot of resources into into this if this
34:19was was the case unfortunately this is not the case
34:23potentially one reason that it’s not the case is that it it
34:28it’s not the case because it’s it’s apparently it’s much easier to
34:32incentivize people to be angry and incentivizing them to be happy and
34:38potentially this is because anger is from evolutionary point of view is much
34:44more useful emotion than happiness as I said before anger is get us to do stuff
34:53when we’re angry were motivated we are alert want to do stuff to change the
34:58situation may be vengeance against somebody that requires a lot of you know
35:07a lot of motivation we are happy we tend to feel things are fine why should we
35:13care so much about what happened we would rather go to the beach but this is
35:20still at the level of speculation so this is this is one of the experiments
35:28that we did and let me tell you that behind the general readers book the time
35:38I’m telling you about there is a more serious scientific paper which is called
35:45mental equilibrium and strategic emotions this is basically a
35:52game-theoretic paper with the tries to incorporate that actually attempts to
35:57incorporate emotions as part of an equilibrium concept and it will appear
36:03soon in management signs and
36:08once I had these while writing this paper about ways of checking some of the
36:20assumptions that lie behind this modern one of them indeed is the idea that we
36:25can incentivize ourself or other people too
36:30to be emotional there is another another assumption which is crucial for for the
36:37idea of rational emotions and and this is the assumption that we are
36:43capabilities to some degree to recognize the emotional state of the other person
36:50remember I told you about the role of commitment in in generating benefits to
36:56us in the state department maybe one more word about the back to the airline
37:04story and that’s asking gain what would have happened if instead of gangrene we
37:16would have come to the airline desk in a perfectly rational state of mind right
37:22perfectly rational state to file would’ve said this but still we request
37:30that you reroute us and if you don’t do it we’re going to see you this is
37:37ridiculous because if you think about it at the time the money that would involve
37:42suing the company compared to the potential benefit the probabilistic
37:49benefit of winning the
37:54the legal procedure and getting compensated just doesn’t make sense from
38:00from rational point of view to do something like that
38:04a mental state of anger allow us to transmit to the other party the fact
38:12that in spite of the fact that from the rational point of view that doesn’t make
38:16sense I’m so pissed off about the way I’m dealt here that the entire thing of
38:23suing the companies still seem appealing to me because I’m angry this is
38:30something like this something like same listen I’m not rational so don’t expect
38:35me to behave rationally by avoiding to look you want revenge for the way I
38:47treated here by this company so so 11 aspect which we used experiment is the
39:00fact that emotion can be synthesized the other aspect which will talk later is
39:06the fact which is really necessary the fact that we are capable of recognizing
39:11at least to a certain degree the mental state of other people because if we
39:15cannot do it there is no there’s no advantage of being angry because if the
39:22other party cannot realize that I’m angry it will affect the other parties
39:26behavior it would be a waste of resources on my part so before I tell
39:31you about these other experiment that we use to verify this suspect let me tell
39:38me tell you a little bit about these parts of the brain which is called the
39:42prefrontal cortex where we know today is the part of the brain where most of the
39:48interaction between russia now latina motion is taking place if you want the
39:54type of decision to impose the most intensive interaction between
39:58rationality and emotions are either social decisions or moral decisions when
40:04we are where we
40:05deliberate about the moral issue it involves an emotional reaction we for
40:14instance empathy is very crucial to be able to have to do to think about moral
40:19issues but also but also reasoning and analysis is required
40:28think about moral issues we we have to do lots of comparisons with this case
40:33like this case with this person between right if he did this thing in this
40:40situation compared to that situation there’s a lot of analysis and we know
40:44that when we get people under the ephemera and MRI scanner
40:50to think about moral issues the part of the brain that is highlighted the most
40:58in which most of the consumption of oxygen oxygen is maximized is this area
41:05of the brain which is called the prefrontal cortex and this is also the
41:12area which is poor person that I told you about Damascus book had his injury
41:20there why he could that’s why he could you could pretty well but he could not
41:26get connection between his is rational deliberation of rational thinking the
41:37drives emotional reaction that has to complement to make correct decisions
41:43what I want to do now is I want to say about giving and and the way it connects
42:19to rationality sweet and this is one of the
42:25big griddles one of the paradoxes
42:29to some extent economies but also to be to pollution everybody colleges and as I
42:36told you some of our people in the rationality century learned immensely
42:43from these people here is here is an example one way to understand human
42:50human giving behavior is to look at the animal world and this is a startling
42:57example these birds flying big flocks and the mail basically you know very
43:12spontaneously take the role of guarding the floor and causes flock make himself
43:19make themselves victims of big predators like eagles that that like to hunt them
43:26one of them is flying above above the floor and whenever he encounters Big
43:35Bird coming coming by he screams very loudly whenever one of these birds are
43:42being given its most likely gonna be him
43:45ok so really it’s it’s it’s not only spending energy it’s also risking your
43:51life and the questions why why these why these birds are doing here is another
43:55startling example about giving the bird among birds these these birds are very
44:06common in desert area in Israel and in fact in the entire Syrian African reef
44:13and what you see happening with these birds is that when they mail leaves the
44:19nest and start seeking cool food for his offspring he gets back to his nest but
44:26he doesn’t put all them back with a full mouth of food but he doesn’t put all of
44:31it in his honesty actually goes
44:34to the other national put a little bit of of the food there as well
44:40when the female sometimes have to go and help him was searching on certain food
44:47one other females in the flock will jump to her nurse to warm the air is really a
44:57kibbutz type which is also quite startling I’m going to give you some
45:04explanation very soon
45:07whatever the explanation and is is basically involves an idea which was
45:15simultaneously introduced into the literature by biologists and economies
45:19in this is called the handicap principle get a handicap principle is is due to a
45:26famous Balaji by the name of Harvey who introduced is in the seventies pretty
45:32much the same time that Michael Stancil got the nobel prize for the same idea
45:37introduced they do signaling and what he was trying to explain is why does the
45:45peacock has such a big till biologists found out that it sits on a burden
45:54makes it hard for him in terms of chasing food escaping predators breeding
46:05whatever and Travis said this is precisely why it’s it’s it’s
46:11advantageous because having this burden can serve as a signal to females and
46:19eventually peacocks are only interested in females they can singled with his
46:25speech to the fact that in spite of the burden in spite of the handicapped this
46:30tale is introducing in their life they’re doing pretty well look at this
46:35time over there
46:38tiny tell he’s doing as well as I’m doing this must mean that I have so many
46:44other traits that are compensating for these burden and these trades are way
46:54more important than so much much of these argument is about showing other
47:02people that I can do things that other people cannot too and this is exactly
47:06the role of serving us the guard among these cockatoos ok they they they risk
47:15their life but they don’t die necessarily sometimes go back to the to
47:19the floor and when they do so they actually get the best female and this is
47:23record right cuz they are able to say I can afford
47:31human you’re giving us to some extent likely it’s it’s it’s showing I can do
47:38it the other the other case is is is a different story it’s it’s about
47:47inclusive fitness it’s about the fact that you are better off buying an
47:54insurance policy from an evolutionary point to fuel and support not not only
47:59your direct offspring but perhaps also you second nephew or niece or nephew are
48:03you
48:04cousins so if your own offspring stone survives used least have transmitted
48:10your genetic profile part of its who you are more relaxed more remote and
48:14relative members can gain fact these these other thing kicks in a very
48:20interesting finding by Jim mondrian who is an economist who writes a lot about
48:27the nation and he finds for instance that the nation in the us- communities
48:34very much dependent on the level of diversity ok a 10 percentage point
48:41increase in ethnic diversity reduces donation by 14 per cent gasoline if you
48:47go back to these birds I mean when they give to other nice they don’t give to
48:52somebody who were absolute genetically very different from them and we are
49:00south prefer to give to a family member and even more emotive family member 2010
49:06stranger and apparently we prefer to give to our own ethnic group then giving
49:10it to other ethnic group and when will you look at these arguments it all
49:16becomes quite rational giving the Norwegian government wants several years
49:26ago wanted initiated big initiative to market Scandinavian economy to other
49:36countries and they recruited several economies me among them to consult with
49:42them how to do this and that was a big long discussions and meetings and
49:48conferences
49:50debating how how it should be done in one of the issues that I raised during
49:56these meetings is whether it is you know if you get to be in one of these
50:01scandinavian countries you see how different it is in terms of people for
50:09instance pay the highest tax rate in Norway and have the lowest in the entire
50:16world and have the lowest tax evasion in the entire world this is these guys are
50:22actually enjoying paying taxes not only the enjoy pay taxes they they are
50:28extremely effort to exposing financial superiority over the piers this is
50:37phenomenal this is outstanding
50:40this is unbelievable and my my argument about this was was a bad basically asked
50:47the question is it really the study set of rules that apply in Scandinavia lets
50:53in normal and does not apply in the USA that makes the big difference in the
50:58economy or maybe is the differences the people behind these rules maybe it’s not
51:05the rules but the people behind this world the country and indeed Norway and
51:10the other Scandinavian countries before the big influx of immigration that
51:16started about two hundred years ago we’re extremely uniform in terms of
51:25ethnic ethnicity right extremely homogeneous right the actually these are
51:32countries that emerged from a very small number of tribes that grew into
51:37countries and I know and I believe that this is partly the reason why why
51:45economic country so different there than in any other place ok so if you allow me
51:51feel lonely I want to to say just a few words about the suspect or recognition
51:59of emotional state I’m going to start by showing you
52:03short video of a very game that was played here
52:10run here in several years ago I don’t think it exists anymore calls later
52:16still this is a game in which there to individual that raised a lot of money
52:21together by solving trivia questions and eventually they have to decide how to
52:26divide us money that they accumulated together and they do it through a very
52:34simple game which will appear to you to be very similar to prisoners dilemma I’m
52:40going to start a little bit about how we use these games to run experiments on
52:46emotion recognition
55:22first still about her she’s going to steal
56:40we could talk to each other based on the ques the body accusing whatever make a
57:17guess about whether they choose little steel and they would there would be
57:20rewarded with money if they made the correct decision if they have the
57:27correct answer whether we wanted to do two things we wanted first to know
57:33whether people have the ability to do so if they have the ability to do this
57:36party about other two people associated
58:02between the mother and the child immediately after birth
58:06we know that that women are endowed with it
58:12when the breast feed during the pregnancy and about ten years ago
58:20fifteen years ago people started economy started doing experiments by
58:24administrating this month it is also used as a drug to the other
58:29physiological function which is generating the contractions so important
58:37in the delivery and often when women have delayed
58:42delivery it is used to induce to induce the delivery and basically synthesize
58:50these contraction and it’s a very by nine people started doing experiments
58:58with these medicine one of the one of the things that sound about it is that
59:03this hormone generate trust how do we know that it generates a famous game
59:09called the trust game you take two individuals you give some money to
59:12player one can keep the entire amount of money let’s say one hundred pounds or he
59:18can transfer part of it to player to whatever he transferred to play a two
59:23player to with his three times this transfer let’s say 12 transfer attends
59:30the player to win said 3051 transfers 20 will see sixteen so force player 1 have
59:37trust in player to watch within 200 the other person will see 300 if it’s fair
59:46enough you will give him back then we’ll get 150 if he doesn’t trust because the
59:56other parties not compelled to giving back anything has been found is that
60:02those people who were administrated the oxytocin compared to those who took the
60:09placebo plus it contains basically all the elements in the Madison except the
60:14active one it smells the same it feels the same people cannot tell the
60:19difference
60:20those who took the oxidizing trusted the other party much more than those who
60:26took the placebo
60:27transferred much much greater amounts ok and what we wanted to do is is to this
60:36was published
60:38not long ago in journal Psychological sign which is important journal
60:46psychology we wanted to see the effect of these drug on the ability to
60:53recognize intentions of other people so we used two groups some some some oxy
61:00tossing some got the placebo and thus all these videos
61:05what do you think we did that the one thing we found is that those basically
61:23did much better than just guessing and those who got the placebo sorry got
61:30those who got the oxytocin did much wars the way they did moore’s interesting is
61:37that they felt compelled to make a decision they were very averted to it
61:4422 spanned energy and thinking these decisions
61:50acted very quickly and eventually made decisions which weren’t better than just
61:58guessing and the reason why they felt avert to engage in this decision making
62:05to potentially with the role of this form one in generating trust if you
62:11think about it why is it that we are asked required to find or speculate
62:20about the intention of other people when we trust them thinking about it usually
62:27that when we think about is when we suspect other people because these drugs
62:34generates higher level of trust it’s basically
62:39tells the brain don’t get yourself engaged or don’t get yourself working in
62:48task that you suspect other people may use your brain is constantly active in
62:56in lots of task once we are in doubt was trust we feel awkward spending energy
63:04and resources in trying to figure out the intentions of other people who might
63:09ask yourself why why aren’t we using it in all sorts of you know when before we
63:14sign a contract and you’d be surprised to know that there is a substance like
63:19this I don’t suggest you can buy it on the internet I don’t suggest you do it
63:23for two reasons
63:2411 of it is it can affect you yourself before it
63:29counterpart but the other reason is because you can buy over the counter in
63:34the you s probably the FDA approves it which means that the content of
63:39oxidizing in this substance is is almost zero wouldn’t affect you
63:47other ways to increase your level of oxidizing and this is how we know that
63:53targeting actually makes you makes you raises the level of oxygen and and and
64:04this is probably why politicians tend to hug each other much more than normal
64:08between politicians and apparently they live by themselves the advantages of
64:20raising the level of oxidizing in themselves and in other people and we’re
64:28about now to do some more experiments more in the context of competition to
64:32understand better how this hormone can affect

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