Hungary’s PM: Madman or Geopolitical Genius? by Kaisa Stucke of Confluence Investment Management
Hungary has seen increasing domestic civil unrest over centralization of power and international criticism over potential changes in its democratic process. Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orban supports the creation of an “illiberal democracy,” noting that countries with restricted democracies have been the rising stars on the international front. He is also one of the first European leaders to turn friendly toward Russia, noting that geopolitics are changing and that Eastern European countries should redefine their international policies according to these changes.
His actions have caused many Western leaders to call Viktor Orban an autocrat, a dictator and a destroyer of democracy. We do not believe that autocracy is the ultimate goal of Viktor Orban, but that he is attempting to secure the best outcome for Hungary under a set of changing geopolitical circumstances that he believes are forthcoming, while making sure his Fidesz party stays in power. Orban believes that Russia will become increasingly belligerent and the West will be too entangled in its own crises to turn its full attention to its Eastern front. All of Eastern Europe has also watched the West’s handling of the Ukraine crisis and the lack of response is making the regional powers ask, “What will the West fight for?” As a result, Hungary has pursued a multidimensional foreign policy, trying to reassess its bargaining power with Europe and Russia, taking from each the most for Hungary while keeping both at arm’s length.
Historically, Hungary has tried to preemptively align itself with regional powers that are gaining strength. Hungary’s current foreign policy shift toward Russia could be a signal of changes in Eastern European geopolitics.
In today’s geopolitical commentary, we will explore the differences between the rules of the geopolitical game that is played by Hungary, the West and Russia. We will also describe the history of Hungary’s balancing act between the powers of the East and the West and how this history has affected the current politics of Hungary. We will discuss the most likely outcomes and the international significance of these outcomes. As always, we will conclude with market ramifications.
Hungary is a land-locked country in southern Eastern Europe. The country has historically been a crossroads country, meaning the region has been ruled by various European and Asian powers. As a crossroads country without strategic significance or rich natural resources, Hungary has had to make deals with whichever power has been the hegemon in the region. Throughout its history, the country has been attacked by a multitude of powers from the East and the West. As a result, Hungary has mostly attempted to placate its more powerful neighbors, not aligning strongly with anyone and being quick to change policies according to changing geopolitics.
Presently complicating the matter for Hungary is that it has seven neighboring countries; six of them are relatively new and are still trying to figure out their own foreign policies.
The Kingdom of Hungary was established in the year 1,000 AD. During the 11th century, the kingdom was attacked by the Mongolian empire twice, with the first attack resulting in half of the Hungarian population being killed or sold as slaves. The Turkish invasion during the 16th century divided the country into three parts—the Hungarian kingdom, the Turkish empire and the Habsburg empire. The country remained divided for 150 years, after which it was controlled by the Habsburg empire in its entirety. In 1848, Hungary attempted to regain its independence, but the Habsburg empire suppressed the movement.
However, in 1867, the Austro-Hungarian empire was established via a peace treaty, which granted more autonomy to the Hungarian segment of the empire.
Hungary was highly involved in both world wars. As is well known, WWI began with the Austro-Hungarian empire declaring war on Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. WWI also ended the Austro-Hungarian empire, after which Hungary became independent. The peace Treaty of Trianon, signed in 1920, established Hungary but reduced the size of the country, cutting it down to one-third of its original land mass and reducing its population by half. As a result, many Hungarians still believe that the land taken from the country in 1920 should be returned.
Hungary was allied with Germany and Austria in WWII, declaring war on the Soviet Union. As the war wore on and it became clear that Germany was weakening and the Soviets were likely to take the Hungarian region, the country’s leaders secretly met with the Soviets, attempting to create friendly relations ahead of the anticipated Soviet takeover.
Through an interesting turn of events, Hitler found out Hungary’s plans and, since the country was essential in the defense of Austria, moved to occupy Hungary, instilling local Hungarian Nazis in the new government.
This history of foreign invasion has instilled in Hungarian people a distrust of foreign powers. Oftentimes, the country’s leaders have blamed all Hungarian misfortunes on foreign involvement, ridding themselves of responsibility.
After the Soviet Union fell in 1989, Hungary re-oriented itself toward the West. The country joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. Hungary thrived economically and enjoyed a balanced political system, with both the center-left and center-right parties enjoying equal representation in the parliament. However, a series of corruption scandals involving the center-left party led to the emergence of Orban’s Fidesz party as the dominant party. Fidesz came to power as a center-right party, a party with nationalistic tendencies but still appealing to the popular vote. The center-left opposition continues to be divided and disorganized, but more recently an extreme-right fascist political party, the Jobbik party, has gained support among the young, Eurosceptic population. Jobbik stands for nationalism, centralization of power and antiglobalization.
In fact, the incumbent Fidesz party faces more threats from the extremeright Jobbik party than from the center-left. These threats from the extreme-right have moved the incumbent party’s stands further right in an attempt to gain votes from Jobbik.
Geopolitically, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the U.S. played a crucial role in Hungary’s transition to a market economy in terms of funds and expertise. However, the whole Eastern European region is aware of the reality that the ex-Soviet Union ceased to be a priority for Washington in recent years as America’s foreign focus has shifted to the Middle East and East Asia. Of the ex-Soviet countries, Hungary is the first country to change its own foreign policy in response to a more aggressive Russia and a withdrawn West, but others may follow soon.
Since Orban’s government came into power, the Fidesz political party has introduced more government control over many areas of the economy, instituting strict controls over media and most recently attempting to introduce an internet tax, which was widely viewed as a further restriction over free speech.
The government has also criticized the EU over its austerity measures, the sanctions it has imposed on Russia and, most significantly, the advancement of EU centered governance of what Hungary views as its own sovereign matters.
One of these central issues for Hungary is whether the EU should have the right to dictate what kind of a democracy its member