How to Distinguish Between the Alpha and the Noise

How to Distinguish Between the Alpha and the Noise

I read a paper today that I thought was pretty interesting — A Consultant’s Perspective on Distinguishing Alpha from Noise. [8 pages PDF]  I have been on both sides of the table in my life.  I have hired managers, and I have tried to sell my equity management services.

How to Distinguish Between the Alpha and the Noise

In general, managers that thought would offer value would venture off the beaten path.  They might own some well-known names, but they would own far more that would make me say, “Who is that?”  The companies would be less known because they are smaller, foreign, have a control investor, etc.

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Those portfolios would look a lot different than an index fund.  They would be more concentrated by sector, industry and company.  They would have a process that analyzes what the market is misvaluing, whether by sector, industry, or company.  They would stick to their discipline through thick and thin, realizing that all anomalies in the market go in and out of favor.

The process would specify what anomalies of the market, or what information advantages the fund would attempt to exploit.  But once you specify that, you stick to that as your strategy.  There is no room for tossing an asset in “because it looks good.”

There is a balance in good strategies that allows for minor modifications around core principles.  All good strategies have to adapt, but there has to be a strategic core from which the strategy will never vary.  Absent that core, the strategy will give in to fear and greed — buying high and selling low.

Quoting from the paper:

I am amazed at all the managers that make an assertion of the type “In the long run X always wins”, where X could be dividend yield, earnings growth, quality of management, a quantitative factor or mix of factors, etc., yet are unable cite a reason why X should be systematically under-priced by the market.

My view is twofold.  There are some ugly situations involving financial stress that most investors don’t want to take on.  There are also less glamorous companies that few want to buy.  Those can be excellent investments.  My second point is tougher to make, but industries go in and out of favor.  So do market factors.  Buy that which is safe, and out-of-favor.

Now, for managers, I would recommend keeping a trading journal, where you record why you think your investment hypothesis will succeed.  If your investments succeed for reasons that you specified in advance, that is an indication of skill.  There is a lot of what is called “luck” in investing.  If you are beating the market, and it is not for reasons that you specified in advance, you do not have skill, you have luck, and luck strongly tends to mean revert.

My view comes down to this: I like to see a long track record of outperformance, an unusual portfolio, and a strategy that convinces me that you have discipline, and a constructive way of finding undervalued assets.  Absent that, I will probably think that you are a pretender than an outperformer.  There are always some that outperform for a short time, and then underperform as the underlying economics shift.  Markets are volatile enough that there are always some with three-year track records that are stunning, and very lucky.

Separating luck from skill — that is the toughest aspect of investing.  But it is needed because there are so many investment managers touting skill, and what do they really offer?

By David Merkel, CFA of alephblog

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David J. Merkel, CFA, FSA — 2010-present, I am working on setting up my own equity asset management shop, tentatively called Aleph Investments. It is possible that I might do a joint venture with someone else if we can do more together than separately. From 2008-2010, I was the Chief Economist and Director of Research of Finacorp Securities. I did a many things for Finacorp, mainly research and analysis on a wide variety of fixed income and equity securities, and trading strategies. Until 2007, I was a senior investment analyst at Hovde Capital, responsible for analysis and valuation of investment opportunities for the FIP funds, particularly of companies in the insurance industry. I also managed the internal profit sharing and charitable endowment monies of the firm. From 2003-2007, I was a leading commentator at the investment website Back in 2003, after several years of correspondence, James Cramer invited me to write for the site, and I wrote for RealMoney on equity and bond portfolio management, macroeconomics, derivatives, quantitative strategies, insurance issues, corporate governance, etc. My specialty is looking at the interlinkages in the markets in order to understand individual markets better. I no longer contribute to RealMoney; I scaled it back because my work duties have gotten larger, and I began this blog to develop a distinct voice with a wider distribution. After three-plus year of operation, I believe I have achieved that. Prior to joining Hovde in 2003, I managed corporate bonds for Dwight Asset Management. In 1998, I joined the Mount Washington Investment Group as the Mortgage Bond and Asset Liability manager after working with Provident Mutual, AIG and Pacific Standard Life. My background as a life actuary has given me a different perspective on investing. How do you earn money without taking undue risk? How do you convey ideas about investing while showing a proper level of uncertainty on the likelihood of success? How do the various markets fit together, telling us us a broader story than any single piece? These are the themes that I will deal with in this blog. I hold bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Johns Hopkins University. In my spare time, I take care of our eight children with my wonderful wife Ruth.

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