This article was republished from a post on the Invest Before the Street blog

For most early stage, small companies, private placements and rights offerings can be vital to fund a companies growth.

Here’s the problem: too many private placements and rights offerings can lead to an ugly share structure, which has a direct impact on the stock price. This is why it’s always important to seriously do your due diligence.

Let’s take a look at how it works.

Private Placements

Most private placements require an investor to be ‘accredited’, meaning you have to make a certain amount of money every year, or have a certain amount of assets, which limits who can participate. You can see the rules for the US here and in Canada the rules can vary by jurisdiction, but are much more relaxed than the US.

A company usually offers these investors the opportunity to participate in the private placement, where they are offered private placement ‘units’.

A ‘unit’ is typically comprised of the following:

  1. A single share at a discount to the current stock price
  2. A whole or half warrant to purchase an additional share at a price usually higher than the current stock price.

Rights Offerings

Rights offerings are pretty similar to private placements. With a rights offering, a company offers current shareholders the right to buy additional shares in the company at a discount to the current stock price. This allows the company to raise additional money by issuing the shares.

You see this more often with smaller us-based companies, where as you’ll see private placements more often with small Canadian companies. The primary difference between private placement and rights offerings is that in a rights offering any current shareholder can participate, whereas in a private placement you have to be an accredited investor, which limits the number of investors that can participate.

Since we are going to focus more on private placements in this article, let’s take a look at an example.

Private Placement Example: Ackroo

Here’s some text from the press release of a previous private placement Canadian-based Ackroo announced.

(For a more detailed overview of the private placement, check out the report from the guys over at Espace Microcaps here):

“OTTAWA, Sep. 30, 2016 (Canada NewsWire via COMTEX) — Ackroo Inc. a gift card, loyalty and rewards technology and services provider, announces that it will conduct a non-brokered private placement in which it will raise up to $1,000,000. The Company has secured an initial lead order of $107,500 for the private placement, and it is anticipated that closing will occur within the next few weeks.

In connection with the private placement, the Company will issue up to 5,000,000 units (each, a “Unit”) at a price of $0.20 per Unit. Each Unit will consist of one common share of the Company and one-half-of-one common share purchase warrant, each full warrant entitling the holder to purchase one additional common share of the Company (a “Warrant Share”) at a price of $0.30 per Warrant Share for a period of twenty-four (24) months from the date of the issuance. The warrants are subject to accelerated expiry in the event the Company’s shares trade at $0.40 or more for 10 consecutive trading days.”

So what does this all mean? Let’s break it down:

  1. Ackroo wants to raise $1 million through the private placement
  2. They plan on doing so by issuing 5,000,000 units at a price of $0.20 per unit
  3. Each ‘unit’ will consist of the following:
    1. One common share in the company
    2. One half warrant to purchase additional shares at a price of $0.30 for 24 months

So is this a good deal for an investor?

Private Placements & Rights Offerings

At the time of the private placement announcement, the stock was trading over $0.23, which provides investors a deal, since the private placement offered them the opportunity to by a unit for only $0.20.

How about the upside?

Private Placements & Rights Offerings

Pretty clear what kind of benefits you’ll get from participating in a private placement if the stock increases.

So how can a private placement hurt the stock price?

Options, Warrants, and Share Structure

If you want to understand how a private placement and other capital raises can potentially hurt a stock later down the road, you need to understand a company’s share structure.

To analyze share structure, you need to take a look at the amount of warrants and options that may be currently outstanding within a company. The less options and warrants outstanding, the better for you as a shareholder because the potential for further dilution is much more limited.

There’s three things we want to look for:

  1. First, we just need to find the total number of shares outstanding.
  2. Next, we need to take a look at the number of options outstanding which are usually a result of share-based compensation for members of the company’s management team.
  3. Lastly, we’ll take a look at how many warrants are outstanding and if any other private placements have occurred recently or, are going to occur in the near future.

Let’s take a look at Ackroo’s shares outstanding:

Private Placements & Rights Offerings

So, at 9/30/2016 Ackroo had 22,186,836 shares outstanding before the impact of any options or warrant exercises.

How about options?

Private Placements & Rights Offerings

As of 9/30/2016, Ackroo has 2,161,571 options outstanding. Therefore, Ackroo’s diluted share count would be 24,348,407.

That doesn’t mean ALL of the options will be exercised though.

If the exercise or strike price is above the current stock price, then it doesn’t make any sense for the option to be exercised because you can buy the stock in the open market for a cheaper price.

On the other hand, if the exercise or strike price is below the current stock price, then the option will likely be exercised because the option holder can get the shares at a lower price than what the stock is currently trading for and then sell the shares they receive back on the open market for a quick profit.

Lastly, let’s take a look at the warrants:

Private Placements & Rights Offerings

As of 9/30/2016, Ackroo only had 300,000 warrants outstanding at an average exercise price of $0.37.

Last, but not least, we can’t forget about the shares and warrants from the most recent private placement! Since the private placement closed in November, this won’t be reflected in these financials because they are as of 9/30/2016.

Let’s put it all together:

Private Placements & Rights Offerings

Now you may be wondering what ‘Lock up ends’ and ‘accelerated expiry’ mean. They are both quite important as you’ll see below.

The Two Sources of Share Price Pressure From Dilution

#1) Long-Term Share Price Pressure

The first source of share price pressure that can result from dilution is when a company just has a bad share structure in general. For example, if a company has a ton of options and warrants outstanding that can result in selling pressure on the stock as people that exercise the options and warrants try to sell their recently acquired shares in the open market.

This is why it’s a

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